Posts tagged "school"
Produced by Ella Steigelman, founding member of the California Kindergarten Training School. Kindergarten teacher’s workbook. 1890
Froebel’s system departed from traditional methods of schooling in emphasizing things rather than words, and doing rather than talking or memorizing. This group of early twentieth-century workbooks, which demonstrate Froebel’s educational philosophy, were all prepared by women, whom many reformers at the time considered more effective than men as educators of infants. The distinct visual character of each workbook indicates the range of creative expression that was possible using Froebel’s Gifts-a system of nonrepresentational objects and materials that aimed to develop recognition and appreciation of natural harmony. These early exercises in abstraction and pattern making paralleled many of the activities adopted by progressive schools of art and design in the early twentieth century.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Produced by Ella Steigelman, founding member of the California Kindergarten Training School. Kindergarten teacher’s workbook. 1890

Froebel’s system departed from traditional methods of schooling in emphasizing things rather than words, and doing rather than talking or memorizing. This group of early twentieth-century workbooks, which demonstrate Froebel’s educational philosophy, were all prepared by women, whom many reformers at the time considered more effective than men as educators of infants. The distinct visual character of each workbook indicates the range of creative expression that was possible using Froebel’s Gifts-a system of nonrepresentational objects and materials that aimed to develop recognition and appreciation of natural harmony. These early exercises in abstraction and pattern making paralleled many of the activities adopted by progressive schools of art and design in the early twentieth century.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Conceived and commissioned by Maria Montessori. Teaching materials. 1920s
While studying for her medical degree at the Regia Università di Roma Sapienza–the first woman to qualify there–Montessori developed a particular interest in the creative potential of children with learning difficulties. From systematic analysis of these children’s play, she devised an activity-based teaching method that used material objects to stimulate their senses, and she believed that children should be allowed to explore these materials at their own pace. Montessori’s 1909 publication about her innovative methods developed an international following, which led to the establishment of schools based on her philosophies around the world.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Conceived and commissioned by Maria Montessori. Teaching materials. 1920s

While studying for her medical degree at the Regia Università di Roma Sapienza–the first woman to qualify there–Montessori developed a particular interest in the creative potential of children with learning difficulties. From systematic analysis of these children’s play, she devised an activity-based teaching method that used material objects to stimulate their senses, and she believed that children should be allowed to explore these materials at their own pace. Montessori’s 1909 publication about her innovative methods developed an international following, which led to the establishment of schools based on her philosophies around the world.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Rudolf Steiner. In mir ist Gott – Ich bin in Gott (God is in me – I am in God). 1924
This drawing indicates how Steiner, one of the most influential educational theorists of the twentieth-century, would illustrate school lessons and public lectures with rapid chalk sketches on a blackboard or sheets of black paper. By means of such instantaneous mark-making, he communicated his sense of thought as living, creative energy, and of the individual as part of larger metaphysical harmonies. Steiner established his first school in 1919 for children of employees at the Waldorf- Astoria cigarette factory in Stuttgart. Within a decade Steiner schools had been established not only in Germany and his native Switzerland, butin Austria, Britain, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States, where the first one opened in New York, on East 79th Street.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Rudolf Steiner. In mir ist Gott – Ich bin in Gott (God is in me – I am in God). 1924

This drawing indicates how Steiner, one of the most influential educational theorists of the twentieth-century, would illustrate school lessons and public lectures with rapid chalk sketches on a blackboard or sheets of black paper. By means of such instantaneous mark-making, he communicated his sense of thought as living, creative energy, and of the individual as part of larger metaphysical harmonies. Steiner established his first school in 1919 for children of employees at the Waldorf- Astoria cigarette factory in Stuttgart. Within a decade Steiner schools had been established not only in Germany and his native Switzerland, butin Austria, Britain, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States, where the first one opened in New York, on East 79th Street.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Advertisement for Gymbo School & Gym Shoes. 1930
This brochure advertising Gymbo shoes emphasizes the “absolute freedom” given to every part of the foot by the rubber-soled canvas shoes that were required for pupils in most British schools in the 1930s. With medical experts and educators endorsing the beneficial effects of physical activity on academic performance as well as general health, schools began to pay greater attention to nurturing children’s bodies through movement and exercise. Innovations in children’s clothing soon followed, with designs for activewear to accommodate this new emphasis on freedom of movement. Girls in particular benefited from the increased mobility and encouragement to participate in sport or dance that challenged conventional constructions of femininity.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Advertisement for Gymbo School & Gym Shoes. 1930

This brochure advertising Gymbo shoes emphasizes the “absolute freedom” given to every part of the foot by the rubber-soled canvas shoes that were required for pupils in most British schools in the 1930s. With medical experts and educators endorsing the beneficial effects of physical activity on academic performance as well as general health, schools began to pay greater attention to nurturing children’s bodies through movement and exercise. Innovations in children’s clothing soon followed, with designs for activewear to accommodate this new emphasis on freedom of movement. Girls in particular benefited from the increased mobility and encouragement to participate in sport or dance that challenged conventional constructions of femininity.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Jan Duiker. Cliostraat Openluchtschool voor het Gezonde Kind (Open-air school for the healthy child), Amsterdam. 1927-30
Though open-air schools–which emphasized welcoming, flexible spaces and access to plenty of fresh air and sunlight–from earlier in the century had been largely focused on serving sickly children, this school was for the healthy. By deploying large windows, cantilevered concrete structures, and steel frames Duiker designed a compact building flooded with light and air. Of his design, the architect said, “Modern techniques enable us to keep the material used in the building to a minimum and to heat these almost entirely open spaces without any difficulty so that children need only wear the lightest clothing, as is medically recommended.”
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Jan Duiker. Cliostraat Openluchtschool voor het Gezonde Kind (Open-air school for the healthy child), Amsterdam. 1927-30

Though open-air schools–which emphasized welcoming, flexible spaces and access to plenty of fresh air and sunlight–from earlier in the century had been largely focused on serving sickly children, this school was for the healthy. By deploying large windows, cantilevered concrete structures, and steel frames Duiker designed a compact building flooded with light and air. Of his design, the architect said, “Modern techniques enable us to keep the material used in the building to a minimum and to heat these almost entirely open spaces without any difficulty so that children need only wear the lightest clothing, as is medically recommended.”

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Margarete (Grete) Lihotzky. Perspective view from the southeast (view of the rotunda), design for an extension of Ernst Egli’s school for girls, Ankara. 1938
Lihotzky, perhaps best known for the design of modernist kitchens in the 1920s, designed numerous facilities and furniture for children in the course of her itinerant architectural career. Forced to leave the Soviet Union in 1937 because of a Stalinist purge of foreign expats, she eventually found work at the Istanbul Académie des Beaux-Arts through her friend, architect Bruno Taut, designing schools for the Ministry of Education. Turkey was a young republic undergoing radical modernization, a process being given architectural form by predominantly German-Austrian modernists. In her design for a girls’ school in Ankara, the new capital, Lihotzky combined simple, geometric volumes and a rational layout with a reference to monuments of the former Turkish Ottoman empire in the form of a double-story glazed rotunda.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Margarete (Grete) Lihotzky. Perspective view from the southeast (view of the rotunda), design for an extension of Ernst Egli’s school for girls, Ankara. 1938

Lihotzky, perhaps best known for the design of modernist kitchens in the 1920s, designed numerous facilities and furniture for children in the course of her itinerant architectural career. Forced to leave the Soviet Union in 1937 because of a Stalinist purge of foreign expats, she eventually found work at the Istanbul Académie des Beaux-Arts through her friend, architect Bruno Taut, designing schools for the Ministry of Education. Turkey was a young republic undergoing radical modernization, a process being given architectural form by predominantly German-Austrian modernists. In her design for a girls’ school in Ankara, the new capital, Lihotzky combined simple, geometric volumes and a rational layout with a reference to monuments of the former Turkish Ottoman empire in the form of a double-story glazed rotunda.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

W. C. Uduku. Painting by a student of Kenneth Murray, showing the preparation of palm oil. 1927-43
The creator of this painting, W. C. Uduku, was a pupil of Kenneth Murray, who taught arts and crafts at a boys’ boarding school in Nigeria in the 1930s. Instead of imposing European conventions or having his pupils copy European products, Murray encouraged them to take local scenes and activities as subject matter, and to draw from memory. This approach, pioneered in Britain by schoolteacher Marion Richardson in the 1920s, was shared by a small group of British modernist designers committed to countering the pernicious effects of colonialism on the indigenous material culture of West Africa. Uduku’s work, along with those of Murray’s other students, was exhibited to much acclaim in London in 1937.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

W. C. Uduku. Painting by a student of Kenneth Murray, showing the preparation of palm oil. 1927-43

The creator of this painting, W. C. Uduku, was a pupil of Kenneth Murray, who taught arts and crafts at a boys’ boarding school in Nigeria in the 1930s. Instead of imposing European conventions or having his pupils copy European products, Murray encouraged them to take local scenes and activities as subject matter, and to draw from memory. This approach, pioneered in Britain by schoolteacher Marion Richardson in the 1920s, was shared by a small group of British modernist designers committed to countering the pernicious effects of colonialism on the indigenous material culture of West Africa. Uduku’s work, along with those of Murray’s other students, was exhibited to much acclaim in London in 1937.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

School-in-a-Box. 1994
Aid organizations such as UNICEF rely on the logic and methodical structure of design thinking in the development of new tools for providing aid in situations of disaster and conflict. School-in-a-Box is one such tool: a compact metal case containing the materials to set up a makeshift school for eighty students, including writing materials, teaching clock, tape measure, scissors, plastic blocks for counting, and exercise books. The box itself is robust enough to withstand shipment and lockable for safe storage, and the inside of the lid can be coated with chalkboard paint, which is provided. Thanks to designs such as this, education continues to play a part in emergency response; children can be gathered in safe spaces where positive development and a comforting sense of normalcy are provided. UNICEF’s Inspired Gifts series of products and kits support nutrition, vaccination, and education for children in need. This item and others are available for purchase at unicefusa.org/inspiredgifts.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

School-in-a-Box. 1994

Aid organizations such as UNICEF rely on the logic and methodical structure of design thinking in the development of new tools for providing aid in situations of disaster and conflict. School-in-a-Box is one such tool: a compact metal case containing the materials to set up a makeshift school for eighty students, including writing materials, teaching clock, tape measure, scissors, plastic blocks for counting, and exercise books. The box itself is robust enough to withstand shipment and lockable for safe storage, and the inside of the lid can be coated with chalkboard paint, which is provided. Thanks to designs such as this, education continues to play a part in emergency response; children can be gathered in safe spaces where positive development and a comforting sense of normalcy are provided. UNICEF’s Inspired Gifts series of products and kits support nutrition, vaccination, and education for children in need. This item and others are available for purchase at unicefusa.org/inspiredgifts.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Talwin Morris. School textbooks. 1900s
These books were published by Blackie & Son, a Scottish company well known for its close relationship with modern designers as well as specialism in educational and religious publications that were distributed throughout the British Empire. The cover designs–spare, linear, and derived from stylized plant forms-reflect the Glasgow Style, a local variant of the international New Art, which was applied to all types of modern design, including children’s clothing, furniture, schoolbooks, and schools. Scotland had a long-established reputation as one of the best-educated societies in the world, due in part to a Calvinist emphasis on self improvement and a broad-based education system spanning the arts and sciences that was developed during the eighteenth-century Scottish Enlightenment.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Talwin Morris. School textbooks. 1900s

These books were published by Blackie & Son, a Scottish company well known for its close relationship with modern designers as well as specialism in educational and religious publications that were distributed throughout the British Empire. The cover designs–spare, linear, and derived from stylized plant forms-reflect the Glasgow Style, a local variant of the international New Art, which was applied to all types of modern design, including children’s clothing, furniture, schoolbooks, and schools. Scotland had a long-established reputation as one of the best-educated societies in the world, due in part to a Calvinist emphasis on self improvement and a broad-based education system spanning the arts and sciences that was developed during the eighteenth-century Scottish Enlightenment.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Frankie Faruzza. Cover of the book Children and the City, by Olga Adams. 1952
Adams, one of the best-known kindergarten teachers in the United States in the 1950s, initiated a classroom project called “Our City” at the Laboratory School in Chicago to stimulate children’s appreciation of how cities worked. Following extensive discussion about how they interacted with and understood the city, the pupils imagined a model town, and then went on to develop their ideas into a cardboard community that they governed themselves.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Frankie Faruzza. Cover of the book Children and the City, by Olga Adams. 1952

Adams, one of the best-known kindergarten teachers in the United States in the 1950s, initiated a classroom project called “Our City” at the Laboratory School in Chicago to stimulate children’s appreciation of how cities worked. Following extensive discussion about how they interacted with and understood the city, the pupils imagined a model town, and then went on to develop their ideas into a cardboard community that they governed themselves.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Jean Prouvé. School desk. 1946
Prouvé, formally trained as a blacksmith, described himself as a constructeur (constructor) because he identified as both a designer and engineer. His keen interest in materials and involvement in every step of production made him particularly well-suited to respond to the demand for new postwar schools. A shortage of materials coupled with a need to build quickly necessitated flexibility and resourcefulness. Prefabricated shells with mass-produced aluminum roof panels allowed for open, adaptable classrooms. This desk, for students aged eight to fourteen, with its straightforward application of enameled steel and oak, reveals Prouvé’s practicality and thoughtful considerations of space.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Jean Prouvé. School desk. 1946

Prouvé, formally trained as a blacksmith, described himself as a constructeur (constructor) because he identified as both a designer and engineer. His keen interest in materials and involvement in every step of production made him particularly well-suited to respond to the demand for new postwar schools. A shortage of materials coupled with a need to build quickly necessitated flexibility and resourcefulness. Prefabricated shells with mass-produced aluminum roof panels allowed for open, adaptable classrooms. This desk, for students aged eight to fourteen, with its straightforward application of enameled steel and oak, reveals Prouvé’s practicality and thoughtful considerations of space.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Ernő Goldfinger. Model demonstrating the assembly of a prefabricated concrete construction system for Westville Road Primary School and Brandlehow Road Infants School, Hammersmith, London. 1950
In 1950 Goldfinger produced an experimental cast-concrete frame with brick and glass walls for two London County Council schools. Wartime bombing had disproportionately affected London, where, at the conflict’s end, more than 1,300 schools were damaged or destroyed. Goldfinger’s design was economical, and as his model indicates, required a single crane to erect the precast frame, which could be accomplished in only twenty-four days.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Ernő Goldfinger. Model demonstrating the assembly of a prefabricated concrete construction system for Westville Road Primary School and Brandlehow Road Infants School, Hammersmith, London. 1950

In 1950 Goldfinger produced an experimental cast-concrete frame with brick and glass walls for two London County Council schools. Wartime bombing had disproportionately affected London, where, at the conflict’s end, more than 1,300 schools were damaged or destroyed. Goldfinger’s design was economical, and as his model indicates, required a single crane to erect the precast frame, which could be accomplished in only twenty-four days.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Arne Jacobsen. Munkegårds school desk. 1955
The belief that children were more at ease in intimate spaces affected the plan and decoration of postwar schools, and resulted in numerous low-rise schools with access to small gardens adjacent to the classroom. Jacobsen’s Munkegårds School embodied this ideal. Although the school was large (designed for a thousand students from ages seven to fifteen), it retained a sense of intimacy. Small paved courts were landscaped with different flagstone patterns and plant species. Jacobsen designed three sizes of classroom furniture, including this plywood desk on a tubular steel frame with a satchel hook, along with laminated beech chairs that were lightweight and portable.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Arne Jacobsen. Munkegårds school desk. 1955

The belief that children were more at ease in intimate spaces affected the plan and decoration of postwar schools, and resulted in numerous low-rise schools with access to small gardens adjacent to the classroom. Jacobsen’s Munkegårds School embodied this ideal. Although the school was large (designed for a thousand students from ages seven to fifteen), it retained a sense of intimacy. Small paved courts were landscaped with different flagstone patterns and plant species. Jacobsen designed three sizes of classroom furniture, including this plywood desk on a tubular steel frame with a satchel hook, along with laminated beech chairs that were lightweight and portable.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Front and back cover of the magazine Construyamos escuelas (Let us build schools), no. 1 (August 1947), published by the Comité Administrador del Programa Federal de Construcción de Escuelas (CAPFCE), Mexico City.
In Mexico, Hannes Meyer, the Swiss architect and second director of the Bauhaus, led the Instituto del Urbanismo y Planificación (Institute of urbanism and planning) between 1942 and 1949, making schools a priority for regional development. With his guidance, the Mexican government sponsored the construction of small, low-cost rural schools that were modern but that also expressed a strong regional architectural identity.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Front and back cover of the magazine Construyamos escuelas (Let us build schools), no. 1 (August 1947), published by the Comité Administrador del Programa Federal de Construcción de Escuelas (CAPFCE), Mexico City.

In Mexico, Hannes Meyer, the Swiss architect and second director of the Bauhaus, led the Instituto del Urbanismo y Planificación (Institute of urbanism and planning) between 1942 and 1949, making schools a priority for regional development. With his guidance, the Mexican government sponsored the construction of small, low-cost rural schools that were modern but that also expressed a strong regional architectural identity.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Arne Jacobsen. Aerial perspective drawing of the Munkegårds School, north of Copenhagen, from the southwest. 1950
The belief that children were more at ease in intimate spaces affected the plan and decoration of postwar schools, and resulted in numerous low-rise schools with access to small gardens adjacent to the classroom. Jacobsen’s Munkegårds School embodied this ideal. Although the school was large (designed for a thousand students from ages seven to fifteen), it retained a sense of intimacy. Small paved courts were landscaped with different flagstone patterns and plant species. Jacobsen designed three sizes of classroom furniture, including a plywood desk on a tubular steel frame with a satchel hook, along with laminated beech chairs that were lightweight and portable.
Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Arne Jacobsen. Aerial perspective drawing of the Munkegårds School, north of Copenhagen, from the southwest. 1950

The belief that children were more at ease in intimate spaces affected the plan and decoration of postwar schools, and resulted in numerous low-rise schools with access to small gardens adjacent to the classroom. Jacobsen’s Munkegårds School embodied this ideal. Although the school was large (designed for a thousand students from ages seven to fifteen), it retained a sense of intimacy. Small paved courts were landscaped with different flagstone patterns and plant species. Jacobsen designed three sizes of classroom furniture, including a plywood desk on a tubular steel frame with a satchel hook, along with laminated beech chairs that were lightweight and portable.

Learn more at MoMA.org/centuryofthechild

Get your daily dose of design from the MoMA exhibition Century of the Child: Growing by Design, 1900–2000. During each of the 100 days of the exhibition we will showcase an object featured in the show.

To find out more about Century of the Child visit MoMA.org/centuryofthechild.

Purchase the exhibition catalogue on MoMAStore.org or get the digital edition for the iPad on iTunes.

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